• Thu. Sep 29th, 2022

    Data about Egypt

    ByGoodBoy

    Sep 23, 2022
    5 thoughts on “Data about Egypt”
    1. Egypt
      Egypt (Egypt) is full of the Republic of Egypt. Located in northeast Africa, with an area of ​​1002,000 square kilometers. The population is 65.87 million (2000), mainly in Arabs, believing in Islam; Copper accounts for about 11.8%to believe in Christianity; in addition, there are Bendin people and Nubians. The official language is Arabic. Capital Cairo.

      Geographical Egyptian land spans Asia and Africa. Most of them are located in the northeast of Africa. The Sinai Peninsula on the east of the Suez Canal is located in the southwestern corner of Asia. West Libya, Sudan in the south, east of the Red Sea and bordering Palestine, the Mediterranean in the north, and the coastline of more than 2700 kilometers long. 96%of the whole country is the desert. The highest peak is Mountain Catherine, 2642 meters above sea level. The Nile River runs through the north and south, injected into the Mediterranean, with a length of 1530 kilometers in the territory, and a narrow river valley with a width of about 3 to 16 kilometers wide on both sides of the strait. River valley and Delta. The Suez Canal is a traffic road connecting Europe, Asia, and Africa. The main lakes include the largest artificial lake formed by Africa (5000 square kilometers) formed by the largest lake, Tim Sahh Lake, and the African largest artificial lake formed by ASwang Gaoba. Dry and rainy throughout the territory. The Nile Delta and the northern coastal areas are subtropical Mediterranean -style climate. The average temperature in January was 12 ° C, July 26 ° C; the average annual precipitation was 50 to 200 mm. Most of the remaining areas are tropical desert climate, hot and dry, and the temperature can reach 40 ° C. The average annual precipitation is less than 50 mm. There are often "Pentecosts" from April to May each year, with sand and stone, damaging crops.

      The historical Egypt is one of the four ancient civilizations in the world. As early as 3100 BC, Menice in the south unified the upper Egypt and the lower Egypt, and established the first slavery dynasty. At this time, Egyptian culture had matured, and pictographs began to use pictographs to create French autocratic politics. A batch of pyramids called the world miracle, as well as the lion's face and a large number of statues have been built one after another. In 640, the Arabs invaded Egypt, and Egypt has been reduced to a province in the Puma and Aza dynasty. Although the Arabs have changed many times, Egypt's dominance status is still the same and accepts Islam. In 1517, the Turkey invaded and became the province of the Ottoman Empire. In 1798, Napoleon I of France invaded and ruled for 3 years. In 1882, the British army occupied Egypt and became the British colony, but it still belonged to the Ottoman Empire. After the outbreak of the First World War, Britain announced that Egypt was the "protection country" of Britain. Due to the resistance of the Egyptian people, Britain announced on February 28, 1922 that Egypt was an independent country, but retained the right to deal with issues such as national defense, diplomacy, and ethnic minorities.

      The free officer organization led by Nasser on July 23, 1952 to overthrow the Faruk dynasty and set up the "Revolutionary Guidance Committee" to master the regime. On June 18, 1953, the Egyptian Republic was announced, and M. Najib served as the first president and prime minister. November 1954 Nasser replaced Najib as president. In 1956, Nasser announced that the Suez Canal was put into state -owned, and he frustrated Britain, France, and joint military intervention. In 1958, Egypt and Syria merged into the United Republic of Arabia. In 1961, the Syrian coup was disintegrated. In 1970, Nasser died, and Sadat succeeded the president. On September 1, 1971, Egypt was renamed the Republic of Egypt. On October 6, 1981, Sada special met, and Mubarak was elected president. Mubarak has gradually adjusted the original policies, emphasizing domestic stability, properly open democracy, talks with the opposition party, and strengthen social security, suppress the extremist elements of creating terrorist activities; attach importance to the development of the ethnic economy, implement open policies, and actively attract foreign capital. Adhere to state -owned and private enterprises, pay attention to improving people's lives. In terms of diplomacy, we focus on improving relations with Arab countries. On October 12, 1990, the Speaker Maha Gubu was assassinated. Mubarak announced the dissolution of the parliament that day and held a parliamentary election in November. In 1991, the government proposed "putting domestic stability in the first place", opening up democracy, eased the relationship with the opposition party, and resolutely crack down on crimes such as creating terrorist activities, violent events, and assassinations. Economic reform takes safe measures and pay attention to caring for social affordability.

      This Permanent Constitution passed by citizen voting on September 11, 1971, stipulating that Egypt is "a country that is based on the labor and socialist system based on the labor people's power alliance." The coexistence of cooperative ownership and private ownership "coexist; the president is the highest commander of the head of state and the armed forces; the president is nominated by the people's parliament, and citizens vote. On May 22, 1980, the constitution was amended by citizens, stipulating that the political system was "based on multi -party system"; "president can be re -elected many times" and added the terms of "establishing a negotiation meeting". The people's council is the highest legislature. Members are elected by the universal election; the Speaker and Vice Speaker are elected once a year. The main functions are: nominate presidential candidates; host the formulation and modification of the constitution; determine the national general policy; approve the economic and social development plan and national budget and final accounts; supervise the government.
      has announced the dissolution of all political parties since the Revolution of 1952. In 1976, Sadat announced the implementation of a multi -party system. There are 6 main political parties: ① Egyptian National Democratic Party, the ruling party. Established in July 1978. ② Egypt's Xinhuafu escape the party, mainly against the party. Established in February 1978. ③ Egyptian Socialist Labor Party. Established in December 1978. ④ Labor Party of Liberal Socialist in Egypt. Established in January 1976, its predecessor was a free socialist forum. ⑤ The Egyptian National Progress Unified Group Party. The predecessor was the National Progressive Forum established in 1975. In November 1976, the current name was changed. ⑥ Uma Party. Established in July 1983.

      In economy 1952 after Nasser overthrew the Faruk dynasty, it was nationalized to the original larger industrial and commercial, banks, insurance industries, transportation, and import and export trade. In 1974, President Sadat announced the implementation of a "economic openness" policy, actively strived for foreign aid, vigorously introduced foreign capital, developed free zones and special economic zones, developed private enterprises, and promoted state -owned enterprises. From 1974 to 1982, the annual economic growth rate reached 8%. After Mubarak's administration, Mubarak continued to adjust economic policies, carried out fiscal, economic and management reforms, and implemented a "productive open policy". While developing state -owned enterprises, we will continue to relax the restrictions on private enterprises. Emphasize production to increase production, improve efficiency, restrict imports, encourage exports, overcome economic difficulties with the spirit of self -reliance, and develop the economy. In 1991, due to Egypt's stance against Iraq's invasion of Cokwait in the Gulf War, it was appreciated by Western countries such as the United States and the Gulf Arab countries. More than 20 countries and international financial institutions provided loans and emergency assistance to Egypt. In addition, the United States exempts Egypt's debts, and Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Qatar have also canceled the debt owed by Egypt. In May of the same year, the Paris Club's debt country exempts about $ 11 billion in debt in Egypt. Egypt's economic difficulties have been relieved. In 1999, the GDP was US $ 83.2 billion. Exchange rate in 1998: 3.39 £ $ 1.
      The Egyptian resources are rich, preliminary proven reserves: 6 billion barrels of oil, 328.4 billion cubic meters of natural gas, about 1.2 billion tons of phosphate, and 182 million tons of iron ore; Silver, molybdenum, copper, talc. The Egyptian industry is mainly light industries such as textiles and food processing. Petroleum, copper, iron, electric power, fertilizer, cement, machinery and other heavy industries have developed greatly, and the development of the oil industry is particularly rapid.
      Agriculture has an important position in the Egyptian national economy. The rural population accounts for 52%of the national population. In 1998, the national arable land accounted for 3.5%of the country's area. The government attaches great importance to agricultural development and expanding the area of ​​cultivated land. The main crops are cotton, wheat, rice, sorghum, corn, sugar cane, linen, peanuts, fruits, vegetables, etc.
      The Egyptian culture, long history, magnificent monuments and rich monuments, and have extremely superior conditions for developing tourism. The main tourist spots are pyramids, lion sides, Aihar Mosque, ancient castle, Greek Roman Museum, Cartba Castle, Monteza Palace, Luxo Temple, Kanak Temple, Wangling Valley Valley , Aswang dam, etc. Tourism income is one of the main sources of Egyptian foreign exchange.
      The transportation of Egypt is very convenient. Sea, land and air transportation capacity increased rapidly. The railway is 7000 kilometers in length. The first subway in Cairo was 42.5 kilometers in length, and the first phase of the project was completed in September 1987. The road is 48,000 kilometers in length. There are 7 ports, with an annual throughput of 30.5 million tons. There are 5 international airports. Cairo Airport is an important international airport connecting Asia, Africa, and Europe. In addition to taxation, the source of finance is mainly relying on the four major income of oil, overseas Chinese exchange, canal and tourism.
      The Egypt has trade with more than 120 countries and regions. Its main trade targets are the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Britain, Japan and other countries. Egypt has also received more foreign aid. The United States is the main assistant country of Egypt. The countries and organizations that provide assistance and loans to Egypt also have Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and other countries and the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. After the Gulf War in 1990, Western and Gulf countries reduced Egypt's debt of 25.5 billion US dollars. In addition, Egypt has received more than $ 1 billion or emergency assistance from Gulf countries, the United States, Western European countries, Japan, Canada and South Korea.
      It for the people's lives, the Egyptian government has long implemented a home subsidy system. In addition, price subsidies are also implemented for rice, flour, oil, sugar and energy.

      The cultural education Egypt implements a popular primary education system. There are 13 comprehensive universities across the country, including Cairo University, Alexander University, Ain Shers University, Aihehar University, etc., with 30,000 university teachers; 25,000 middle schools and 750,000 teachers.
      The Egyptian Daily has 7 existing daily newspapers and more than 70 journals, mainly in Arabic, and a few are French and English. The newspapers include the Pyramid News, the Republic News, the Evening News, and the Message. They are all Arabic. The more influential French newspapers include the Egyptian Report and the Egyptian Daily. The journals are Arabic, including "Pyramid Economist", "Last Cight" Weekly, "Picture" Weekly, and "Ruz Yusu" Weekly.
      The Middle East News Agency is the only news agency run by the country. It was established in 1956 and has more than 10 journalists in London, Paris, Washington, New York, Bonn and other places. The National Broadcasting Station is broadcasting to domestic and foreign broadcasts in more than 30 languages, broadcasting about 170 hours a day, and the Middle East Radio Station and Alexander Broadcasting Station. Egyptian TV was state -owned and was built in 1960.

      In foreign relations Mubarak's governance, pursuing independent, peaceful, friendly and all alliance policies, and advocates developing friendly cooperation with each other countries on the basis of mutual respect and non -interference in internal affairs. Actively improved and strengthened the relationship with the Arab countries. In May 1989, the qualifications of member states of the Arab League were restored.
      Egypt also emphasizes its own African attributes. It is necessary to strive to develop friendship and cooperation with African countries, and strive to promote South -South cooperation and North -South dialogue. Keep a "special relationship" with the United States, but not alliance. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, he admitted that the former Soviet Union joined the Republic and established diplomatic relations with him. Continuously develop relations with Western Europe and Japan. Egypt has established diplomatic relations with 165 countries.
      Egypt is the first Arab and African countries to recognize China and establish diplomatic relations with China. The date of establishment of diplomatic relations is May 30, 1956.
      The relationship with the United States has twists and turns. After the June 5th War of 1967, Egypt announced his break of friends with the United States. In 1974, the two countries resumed diplomatic relations. In 1979, Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel, and the United States provided Egypt aid and military aid every year. On the issue of peace in the Middle East, Egypt attaches importance to the role of the United States.
      The relationship with the Soviet Union is also quite twisted. After Mubarak's administration, the relationship between the two countries gradually improved. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Egypt signed a trade agreement with Russia.
      The relations with Egypt and Western Europe have been cold since the defeat of the British French forces in 1956 and the Egyptian Canal to the state -owned incident. Since the Middle East War in October 1973, Egypt's relations with Western European countries have developed greatly.
      The special relationship between Egypt and Syria. In February 1958, the two countries merged into the United Republic of Arabia. In 1961, they disintegrated due to a coup in the country in China. The two countries maintained general diplomatic relations. During the bay crisis, the two countries have the same position. The two sides were very close to the past and coordinated on the Middle East issue.
      The Egypt and Libya have broken off because of boundaries and other issues. Both sides expressed their desire to improve the relationship between the two countries and took some actions. In 1991, the two sides were committed to the integration of the two countries, and bilateral relations developed rapidly in various fields.
      The Egyptian war in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973 broke out. In 1978, President Sadat signed the David Camp with Israeli Prime Minister Bei Jing and US President Carter in the United States. On March 26, 1979, Sadat and Bi Jing signed a peace treaty in Washington to announce the end of the war state between the two countries. In 1980, the two countries established ambassador -level diplomatic relations. On March 15, 1989, Israel evacuated Taba, and Egypt recovered all of the Sinai Peninsula including Taba to occupy the soil.

    2. The historical background of ancient Egypt
      . Although Egypt has a long history, there is no history of history books. It was not until about 304 BC, and after the Greek General Ptolemy was self -reliant, he asked the priest and scholar of Egypt to write a "Egyptian History". Unfortunately, the most complete Egyptian history at that time was 47 BC. When Caesar attacked Egypt, with the scriptures of the ancient Egyptian text in the Alexander City Library. The burning of this Egyptian history is really unparalleled. Fortunately, some other works at the time quoted some of this book to know some fragments of ancient Egyptian history. Until now, Egyptian scholars have roughly used Maneto's division of Egyptian history, but it is still unclear about the actual age of many historical events. There are also different opinions on the interview of ancient Egyptian history.

      The Nile River Valley is called upper Egypt, and the Nile Delta is called Xia Egypt. The Nile River flooding the farmland every year, Mo and Gully, must renovate water conservancy every year and measure land. Therefore, Egypt has developed a political organization very early.
      Egypt is located in the northern part of Africa and east of the Sahara Desert. Like many ancient civilizations, the Egyptian civilization was bred by a Great River-Nile River. The Nile River Valley is called Shang Egypt. The Nile Delta is called Xia Egypt. In the valley, the cliffs are visible, and the desert is the other. The delta is flat. Due to the different natural environment, the upper Egypt developed different culture and beliefs. Therefore, since ancient times, the Egyptians and neighboring nations have been called "two places" in Egypt. The Nile River is the main way to connect between the two places, and it is also the lifeblood of the Egyptian civilization.
      The view of the lives in ancient Egyptian culture
      The beliefs of the ancient Egyptians' beliefs and related tombs of the life of the lives, at least about 6,000 years ago at the Bada site in Egypt. Essence Its mythology and etiquette gradually developed in the ancient kingdom, and there was no great change until Christianity was introduced into Egypt.
      For the ancient Egyptians, death is only the interruption of life, not the end. After death, it does not disappear, but will enter another eternal life that is better than this life, at least for elites.
      The ancient Egyptians believe that people have two spirits. "Card" was formed at the same time when people were born. After the death, "card" went to another world, "pulling" and body in the world. When people die, "pull" leave the flesh, and people cannot speak or act. After the body was buried, he left the tomb during the day, came back to enter the flesh at night, and got up to enjoy the burial food. Therefore, the preservation of funerals and physical body is very important. If "pulling" starve to death, or the physical body is broken, "card" cannot survive in another world. After people get eternal life, the combination of "card", "pull" and the body becomes an immortal life form, called "Aka".
      In the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians, a person must get eternal life after his death. When he was alive, his behavior must be in line with the norm of "Mate" (axioms, order). The deceased's undead will be brought to the goddess of Matt by the god of mummy of the wolf head to Mate, and placing the dead's heart (the ancient Egyptians think of thoughts, consciousness on the heart) on one side of the balance, and on the other side symbolizes "Mal Special "feathers. If the deceased is too evil, the heart will sink too heavy and sink, and the monster Amuut (crocodile, the upper body is a lion in the upper body, and the lower body is a hippocampus). Small sins must be repented one by one to obtain forgiveness. The result of the trial was recorded by the god of wisdom of the heron or the incarnation. After passing this trial, the dead of the deceased, under the guidance of the Eagle Head's Herus or Aura, went to the worship of the resurrected god Osiris, which was given Eternal Sheng by Osiris and became "Aka".
      The belt belt is likely to be developed from the worship of the wolf before the dynasty. The worship of the wolf may be related to people who often see the corpse in the graveyard by the wolf, hoping to turn it into the protective god of the corpse through worship of the wolf. Aura is not only a protector of the dead body, but also the leader of the deceased to worship Aceris. Aura sometimes appears in the image of a wolf head, and sometimes appears directly as a wolf.
      Oxilis developed into the national man in charge of resurrection during the sixth dynasty during the ancient kingdom. It is said that he was the descendant of the sun god pull, and also inherited the ruler of the pull. This caused his brother Sett's dissatisfaction, so he was framed, stunned Osiris in the box, and threw the box into the river. Aisiris's wife (also his sister) Aici resurrected Aicis with her mana. Stert once again harmed Osiris, chop him into pieces, throw it into the river, and rush to all parts of Egypt. With the assistance of her sister Naphts (also Sait's wife), Aicis regained all the corpses and pieced together into a complete body. After the death of Osiris, he became the god of dominating Hades, and he had the power to resurrect.
      In the remains of Osiris, Aisis mysteriously conceived, and gave birth to the Eagle God He Rus. In order to avoid Sett, Aici and Naphts were hidden in the swamp in the Delta to raise He Rus. Under Aisse's magic shelter, He Rus has the ability to resist the snake scorpion beast since he was a child. In the ancient Egyptian mythology, the deceased's undead will face the invasion of various demons and beasts on the road to worship Osiris, and must rely on the protection of Aisicus, Naphtis and Heusus.
      In fact, the mythology of Heusus appeared earlier than Osiris. In ancient times, it was the god of justice and the confrontation of the Seat who represented the turmoil. He Rus is also the patron saint of Pharaoh. After the beliefs of Osiris were universalized, He Rus became the son of Osiris in mythology.
      The is closely related to the above myths. It is extremely important funeral culture in ancient Egyptian culture. In order to achieve the purpose of eternal life, the ancient Egyptians had a very particular procedure for the preservation of the corpse and the etiquette of the funeral.
      belief
      The basis of the religious belief of ancient Egypt is the worship of nature. The natural phenomenon that cannot be explained is considered to be caused by God. God's power is expressed in various forms. Humans are just part of creation. Wild and domesticated animals may be deity. Even if these animal gods are humanized and human forms, their heads often maintain the original animal shape.
      BAST is a goddess who appears with the image of a cat or lion (when it shows a fierce side). Cats are generally loved and are pets for every family. After the cat dies, it is also made into mummy and buried according to the ceremony. Cat's bronze statue is dedicated to the most common ceremony of Baster God.
      The bronze statue of the BAST Cat God
      This cat -shaped statue sitting straightly stands for the goddess of Baster. There is a wide necklace on the chest. Symbol of the sun. In addition to individual unearthed cultural relics and prehistoric funerals, when the cat was until the middle of the Kingdom, it appeared in the picture. In the third middle period, the cat became the incarnation of the goddess of Basta. The statue of the lion head. It can be seen from a large number of bronze statues unearthed and multiple cat cemeteries that the Egyptians at that time of the worship of the Basta cat god.
      The eagle has a special status in ancient Egyptian culture. The eagle flies high in the sky, closer to the sun than everyone, so the eagle becomes the incarnation of the sun god thunder. The sun with eagle wings has become the most common rune in ancient Egypt. Needless to say, the eagle is often made into mummy, and he was buried in a heavily.
      The bronze statue of Holorus
      The belief of the god of the mummy, Asuzi, originated from the wolf worship. Later, the dog was also accepted as the incarnation of Asuzi. Dog Mumini became a sacrifice dedicated to Asuz.
      Bull worship is also very popular. There is a special pattern on the Apus Holy Cow, which is the mark of Puta. When the original Apus Holy Bull died, he would choose a little bull who was born at the time and had the same pattern on his body, and succeeded as the Apus Holy Cow. New Saint Cow's office and funeral are national events.
      The lives of ancient Egyptians
      The late Neolithic era established a fairly large settlement in the Nile Valley and the Nile Delta. They grow wheat and barley, raising cattle, fishing, catching wild geese, weaving linen cloth, covering houses with mud bricks, can make exquisite pottery and stone tools.
      . They grow wheat and barley, pastoral cattle, fishing, catch wild geese for living, weave linen cloth, cover the house with mud bricks. Like the Neolithic culture elsewhere, pottery is quite common. At that time, craftsmen were already a professional, which could make exquisite stone and ivory crafts, and had begun to use brass.
      The people living on the banks of the Nile are farmers. They use barley, wheat and other grains as staple foods, and also eat poultry and beef. At the same time, the people will also go out to prey on various fish in the Nile. Women will make beer sprinkles and bread, and they will also weave together.
      The scenery of the ancient Egyptians fishing and hunting beasts. On the left is the hunting of cattle and sheep, and the ancient Egyptians can be seen on the right. Small bronze workshop room, make jewelry
      The team delivery team
      women holding lotus in front of the nose and enjoying their aromatic atmosphere
      (Lotus is a symbol of the sun god, common in ancient Egyptian art. Go to the ladies hold the lotus)
      This is a princess who is combing her hair (from some sculpting from the Bird It sarcophagus)
      Hairstyle, and the right hand is drinking drinks.
      This residual film shows the archer. The quality is good and the shape is delicate. (About 2613 ~ 2496 BC)
      The dress of the ancient Egyptians
      The materials of clothes are mainly linen. Men wear skirts, naked upper body, or short -sleeved round neck shirts or gown. The most typical clothing of women is a sleeveless giureous shirt.
      The murals and funerals in the tomb reflect the life of ancient Egyptian social elites, and their longing for the afterlife. We must remember this. Officials are wearing elegant white linen shirts, hand -holding into a scepter, and inspecting the estate. It may be a portrayal of real life, but carpenter, blacksmith, golden craftsman, stonemith, wearing wigs, obviously to express the wealth of the deceased.
      The most typical clothing of women is sleeveless gown. During the New Kingdom period, the traditional simple style was gradually more beautiful, and the shirt skirts with discounted lace decorations reflected the wealth and luxury wind at the time. Although the technology of dyeing is almost as long as weaving, it can be traced back to the dynasty before, but the dyed clothes are limited to foreigners, kings, royal, and God.
      The people wearing shoes or not, there is no answer yet. It seems that only rich talents are dressed in sandals.
      If people and reliefs
      The ancient Egyptian reliefs and paintings present unique perspective views. The head and body are the side, but the shoulders are positive. The proportion of men and women shows unequal status.
      It ancient Egyptian reliefs and paintings present a unique perspective. The head and body are the side, but the shoulders are positive. The shape of the characters is quite consistent. Most men have a wide shoulder to show their masculinity. Men's standing statue is usually in the front of the front, symbolizing vitality.
      The tomb
      In ancient Egyptian beliefs, the tomb is the door to life from this life. The tomb is the place where the sacrifice is sacrificed. The fake door in the tomb is to let the deceased's "pull" can come out to enjoy the offerings. When the family worships, he will shout, "Please come out when you hear my voice and enjoy bread and beer."
      The owner of the tomb is sitting at the table full of bread. It is the most common image of the tomb carving. This theme can be traced back to the second dynasty (about 4,700 years ago). The offering on the table also includes bulls, goose, beef legs, and various vegetables and lotus flowers. In this way, the owner of the cemetery will not be hungry in the coming life, nor will he miss the supplies.
      The period of the ancient kingdom, the tomb is usually divided into two floors. The lobe on the upper floor is a place for worship and upper supply. The hall is decorated with pictures and text describing the dead of the dead. The supply list lists important items needed for life. Rows of servants with bread, fruits, pillows, linen and wooden boxes such as bread, fruits, and pillows.
      The sacrifice in front of the fake door is used to set off the offering. The sacrifice plate is decorated with relief, often engraved with prayer, or the name and position of the owner of the cemetery. The decoration of the festivals, the fake doors and the festival plates are to make everything in the next life, because the sacrifice of the family members will be interrupted sooner or later. Although the funeral scriptures are slightly different in each tomb, they are also for the same purpose: "Royal sacrifice is dedicated to Asuzi, the leader of the funeralist, may he (the deceased) enjoy the longevity and be great. In front of God (Osiris), as a glorious prince, it is buried in the Western desert. "

      This coffin is not just to protect Mumini. It is the epitome of the cemetery and can be a substitute for the deceased.
      The coffin is also a very important part of the ancient Egyptian funeral. The coffin not only protects the integrity of Monai, but also protects the deceased's undead on the journey of worshiping O'Slllis.
      During the dynasty (about 5,000 years ago), the Egyptians dug out shallow pits in the desert and buried their loved ones. At that time, there was no coffin, and the sideways were buried directly. At the end of the dynasty, the tomb with mud bricks made of mud bricks, wooden pillars made roofs, and used straw mats. The wicker basket protected the corpse. Occasionally, there were simple wooden coffin and pottery coffin. In the early days of the dynasty, the coffin gradually became common. At that time, the coffin was relatively short and still buried in the manner.
      The period of burial methods and long coffins of the body's straight burial. The rectangular wooden coffin, from the beginning of the ancient kingdom to the end of the Central Kingdom period, is very common in high society. The side of the coffin is painted with eyes, so that the deceased can see the sun that rises from the east every day. The coffin is carved with the names, positions, and prayers praying to Asuzi and Osiris.
      Mumini
      During the dynasty (about 5,000 years ago), the Egyptians dug out shallow pits in the desert and buried their loved ones. The hot sand particles quickly absorbed the water of the corpse and form a natural dry corpse. This may be the origin of the belief of ancient Egypt's "life after death." Later, the Egyptians began to build a grave, but lost their natural drying effect. But according to their faith, the corpse must be preserved, so they began to find a way to save the corpse.
      Why should the corpse ancient Egypt believe that each life consists of three parts: physical body, "pull" and "card". The body is material, and the meaning of "pulling" is very close to "personality", which is non -material. Body and "pulling" are unique to everyone. "Card" can be interpreted as "vitality", which is shared by everyone. When a person was born, "card" entered the flesh. When death, "card" and "pull" leave the human body. "Card" enters another world and stays around the flesh. "Card", "pulling" and the world after the death of the flesh again, the deceased resurrected to get "eternal life". In the history of ancient Egypt for thousands of years, all funeral rituals and supplies are for this purpose.
      In continuous improvement, mummy production technology has matured during the New Kingdom period. The highest level is roughly like this. First use a metal hook to remove the brain from the nasal cavity, and then pour the emerald oil in the brain. Then use obsidian or vermiculite blade to cut the abdomen, remove the internal organs such as the lungs, liver, stomach, and intestine (the heart is usually in the body, but sometimes it is also taken out), washed the body cavity with palm wine, fills in linen cloth, grinded spices And sodium carbonate powder. Finally, the whole body is covered with sodium carbonate powder. The removed internal organs are also dry with sodium carbonate powder. This procedure is about forty days.
      Puled in the body, remove the filling material in the body (finally buried together), apply pine fat in the body cavity, and fill in clean linen cloth and wood chips. If the heart is taken out, put it in the chest again. The body surface is coated with pine fat and wrapped in linen cloth. There are usually strokes in some parts of the body. Starting from the period of the Kingdom of the Kingdom, it will put the mask (linen or grass paper as a tire, painted with a mud, and then painted) to avoid "pulling" and recognize people when they come back. It takes about thirty days at this stage.
      Stidal organs are more corrupt than the body, so special treatment is needed. From the beginning of the Kingdom of the Kingdom, the liver, lungs, stomach, and intestines began to be placed in four jars after drying. At the same time, the four jars were marked with four sons of He Rus. In the 19th dynasty of the New Kingdom period, the shape of the four cans became the head of the four sons representing He Rus, the head, the eagle head and the wolf head. Starting from the third middle period, the liver, lungs, stomach, and intestines are often between the abdominal cavity or legs after drying. The four jars are still placed in the coffin, but only the meaning of etiquette.
      This about more than 1,000 BC, first use a layer of shell outside Monaii
      about more than a thousand BC, first protective with a layer of shell outside the mummy, and then only the shell is protected before it is only protected by a layer of shell to only be protected by mummy. Put in the coffin. Mumini shell is made of flax cloth or grass paper tires. Open the back, and then suture the square in the mummy. The surface of these mummy shells has gorgeous religious stories painted, and some are also attached to gold foil.
      In the symbol
      For the ancient Egyptians, the amulet made by glazed pottery or semi -gem can produce all the magic of all dangers, whether in life or death; Wearing amulets, you can have health, you can get sick, you can get the blessing of God away from the danger of pain and environment. Even after death, the amulet will accompany the deceased to the underworld. The only scripture in ancient Egypt explained the shape and use of the amulet.
      The San Golden Turtle (dung golden turtle) is the incarnation of the sun god, so it is a common shape of accessories, seals, or amulets. The holy beetle in the funeral meal often combines the wings of the eagle. In addition, there is a "Heart Scarab" (Heart Scarab) is the key to getting eternal life. During the final trial, the heart should be on the side of the balance and accept the test of "Mate". Many people worry that they can't pass this level, so they use stone sculptures to replace their hearts and put them in Mumini.
      Because resurrection is closely related to the myths of Aceris, Aici, and Heusus, their family is the most common theme of amulets. For example, the origin of Jie Dezhu can be traced back to the dynasty before (more than 5,000 years ago), but after the Osiris faith is universal, its symbolic significance has evolved into Aceris spine.
      The most commonly used materials for amulets are usually called colorful glaze pottery. It is a tire fired with fine sand and alkaline glass glaze. The usual color is blue or green, which is the color of the sky and plants, symbolizing life.
      Cura's amulets are made of gems or semi -gems. The most precious amulet is made of gold. Gold is a symbol of the Creator's Sun God. The durability of gold makes it think of God's meat. Gold amulets can protect the immortality of the flesh. The ancient Chinese believed that jade could protect the corpse. The golden fingers, slices and eye protection here are reminiscent of the ancient Chinese golden jade clothing.

    3. Ancient Egypt generally refers to the Egyptian civilization in the lower reaches of the Nile in the lower reaches of the Nile during the period around 32nd century to 343 BC. Ancient Egypt is a typical hydraulic empire.

      Geographical

      Ergestyles are mostly yellow sandy deserts. The place where only the Nile is scrued is the green belt of Egypt. The area of ​​1/30 gathered 90 More than %of the Egyptian population. Egypt is one of the ancient countries of the world. It is greatly influenced by religion. The world -famous pyramid is a kind of worship of the eternal concept of the ancient Egyptians. At present, there are more than 80 pyramids in Egypt. The largest of which is the Hushu pyramid. In addition to pyramids, the face of the lion is also a symbol of Egypt.

      The ancient Egyptian history table

      The first dynasty: 3200 to 2850 BC. From Meni to card, there are eight Pharaoons.

      The second dynasty: 2850 to 2686 BC. From Hotap Mois () to Caskmore, there are six Pharaohs

      Third dynasty: 2686 to 2613 BC. There are five kings from Natrict-Djeser to Houni. The era of Jiao Se was the beginning of power and victory. At this time, a magnificent and spectacular stone building represented by the ladder pyramid building complex of Shakara appeared. The designer, writer and scholar of the building group, as one of the first great men in history books. This era is a period of strong and powerful central centralized monarchy.

      The fourth dynasty: 2613 to 2494 BC. There are six or seven Pharaohs from Snefrou to Sfuskov (). Judging from the majesty of the pyramids, the rule of Sneafru, Husf, and Harph was the pinnacle of this era. In Dharine, the pyramid built by Merton and Kisa showed that the dynasty was governed by the country and economic prosperity. Fifth dynasty: 2494 to 2345 BC. From Ouser to Ounas, there are nine Pharaoons. The most famous are Sahoure and Gedcale-DJEDKARE-Isesi.

      In the fifth dynasty, the "Sun Worship Awareness" developed rapidly, and the famous pyramid inscription is engraved on the wall of the Uneis pyramid in Sakara. Sixth dynasty: 2345 to 2181 BC. From Teti I to Queen Nitocris, a total of seven kings include Perby I and PEPI II who live hundreds of years.

      . Although the sixth dynasties were prominent, the military and martial arts expedition to the southern end of Africa were organized, but some provincial supervisors were constantly expanding the entire historical central central power. Caused the civil strife.

      The first transition period (2181 ~ 1991 BC)

      The seventh dynasty: only 70 days.

      The eighth dynasty: 2181 to 2130 BC. There are eight to 27 Pharaoons, but the names are not available.

      The ninth dynasty to the tenth dynasty: from 2130 to 2040 BC. There are six Pharaoons, three named Katie.

      The eleventh dynasty: from 2130 to 2040 BC. There are three Pharaoons.

      Murthotipu II unified the country in 2050 BC. Since then, the Eleven Dieis monarch has ruled the entire Egypt. Although this makes their hometown more and more important than the status of the city, they are still not enough to replace Memphis. The rulers of Dibis had to travel back and forth, and built a palace at the entrance to Fayum at the twelve dynasties, and a small town like Iti -Tavi. The dynasty transferred the center of power north while not giving up the bottom, showing that a strong and powerful central centralized government gradually recovered.

      The first empire of the kingdom or Dabis (1991-1786 BC)

      The end of the eleventh dynasty: 2060 to 2000 BC. The three veterans of the Monuhtp Fa, the first, unified Egypt in 2040 BC. The twelfth dynasty: 2000 to 1786 BC. Seven Pharaohs, Amenhemat or Sedristris, and the last rule was Queen Sebecinefelut ().

      It, like other countries in the world, stability always alternates with turmoil. The forces of decentralized power in various provinces and other unknown forces in other history have destroyed the Dibis regime that continued from the twelfth dynasty, and Egypt split into many vassal states.

      The second transition period (1786 ~ 1567 BC)

      The 13th to the fourteen dynasties: 1786 ~ 1674 BC. About forty Pharaohs, several of which named Sebehtap. Some Pharaohs are at the same time in the north, central and southern regions of Pharaoh. Starting in 1730 BC, these kings are just the princes of Pharaoh Sikleshafa.

      The 15th to the 16th dynasty: 1674 to 1567 BC. The 16th dynasty was known as the "Little Sek" dynasty and only existed in eastern Delta. There are five Pharaoons in the "Great Westsk" dynasty, including one Khyan and two APOPI.

      The 17th dynasty: 1674 to 1567 BC. Ten Pharaoh ruler Dibis and surrounding areas. They are Sisok's seal. The last three Pharaoh Taa (TAA) I, II, and Kamosis began to fight against Sisov in the north.

      The second kingdom of the new kingdom or Dibis (1567 ~ 1085 BC)

      Eighteenth dynasty: 1567 ~ 1320 BC. From Ahmosis to Hollow Heb, there were 14 monarchs, including four Titmos and four Azen Fos. The queen Axeu Su, Akhenaton and Tatan Camon belong to the dynasty.

      The 19th dynasty: 1320 to 1200 BC. Nine Latinus royal princes, including Latinus I, II, and Setti I, and II.

      The twentieth dynasty: 1200-1085 BC. Ten monarchs, except for the first named Sethnakht, the rest are Ramesis.

      The third transition period (1085 ~ 715 BC)

      The twentieth dynasty: 1085-945 BC. In Tanis's rule, Smendes, Puzusisi I and II. There are Herihor and Pinahm ruled in the bottom.

      The handicraft industry in ancient Egypt

      Almost every Egyptian has a certain connection with agriculture in some respect. Farmers. Due to the rhythm of the rise and fall of the Nile, farmers then combined this rhythm with the exquisite irrigation system, so they were able to plant a variety of crops.

      The farmland in Egypt is overwhelmed by the flood of the Nile for 3 to 4 months each year. When the flood retreated, the fertile river silt was left, and the farming began. Pull the plow twice with a cow to plow the plows twice, then the deposited dirt plows, and then sow, and then let the livestock step on the seeds into the soil. The planted crops include wheat, barley, linen, fruits, as well as vegetables such as onions, garlic, coloring vegetables, peas, lentils and vegetable beans. The irrigation of the farmland uses the water interception groove (some small ditch can lead the water channel to the Nile) and the "oranges" (shaf) -a heavy bucket that can scoop the water from the river to the field gutter.

      The lives of ancient Egyptians

      . Farming species were a lifestyle for most ordinary Egyptians, and their farming technology was leading at the time. As shown by the surviving works, Egyptian craftsman is also one of the best craftsmen in the world. But the lives of the Egyptians have never been work without entertainment.

      The leisure activities of the ancient Egyptians

      Egyptian nobles like luxurious enjoyment. They used chariots, hounds and even tamed cheetahs to hunt birds, crocodiles, hippos and lions. In order to get music, they also invented fishing.

      It to celebrate birthday, marriage or religious festival, they often hold grand and gorgeous banquets. They invited the chefs to dress up, toast and drink, and watch the performances of musicians and dancers.

      The sports activities provide entertainment methods for everyone. Boxing and fencing are widely popular. In addition, when the new French veterans ascended the throne, they generally hold racing races surrounding pyramids.

      The chess and card games are also very popular, especially SENT, which is a game designed based on the road where the deceased leads to the underworld.

      The most distinguished God

      Therus with eagle head is the most distinguished God, and all Pharaoh thinks that he is his incarnation.

      This is the son of ISIS and Osiris. His mother stroked him and asked him to avenge his father who was murdered by his brothers. In the end, Horus won the entire power of Egypt.

      Therus was originally the god of the sky, hovering over Egypt like an eagle to protect his father King Osiris. When Horus defeated the murderer of the murder, he became the king of the entire Egypt. He was portrayed to the upper half as the white crown that symbolized the upper Egypt and the lower part as the red crown of Egypt. For this reason, the rulers of Egypt always regard themselves as Horus, and after their death, they become the embodiment of Ouseris.

      The worship center of Horus is Behdet, Heri La Koblis () and Edfu. Horus's eyes are considered a magical power The majority of amulets.

    4. Overview

      The land of Arab Egypt across Asia and Africa, most of which are located in the northeast of Africa. Only the Sinai Peninsula east of the Suyt Canal is located in the southwestern corner of Asia. The Mediterranean in the north, the east of the Red Sea, Dangya, Africa, and European traffic are about to rush, covering an area of ​​0.20,000 square kilometers. The coastline is about 27 00 kilometers long.

      Egypt is an ancient country with a long history and culture. Slavery unified countries appeared in 32.0 BC. Persians were conquered by the Persians in 5 and 5 years. The Romans invaded in the 30 BC, and Rome has reached more than 60 years since then. Around 64 AD, the Arabs entered Egypt to establish the Arab country. By the middle of the 9th century, the Arabic process of the Egyptians was generally completed. 1 51 7 years became a province of the Ottoman Empire. 1 7 98 years was occupied by the French army. 1 882 has become a British colony. 1911 and 4 years became the British "protection country". 1922, February 28, Britain recognized Egypt's independence. 19 53 years abolished the monarchy and established the republic. 1956 announced the recovery of the Suez Canal in July. In February 1958, Egypt merged with Syria and established the Arab United Republic (referred to as the United Arabia). 1961 September, Syria was separated from the United Arabia. 19 7 1 year to the Republic of Egypt, the country's name. 1956, May 3 0, and my country established diplomatic relations with China.

      The residents

      6 1,640,000, Arabs accounted for about 87 %. 94 % of the country's population is concentrated on a few oasis on both sides of the Nile, Suidi Gorge and desert. Most residents believe in Islam. Arabic is an official language.

      The natural environment

      The desert accounts for more than 9 6 % of the country's area. The west is the Libya Desert. After the Nile entered the border, it was injected into the Mediterranean through Cairo to Dumat, a section of 1 350 kilometers long in Egypt, and a narrow river valley with a width of about 316 kilometers from south to north from south to north. Form a huge Delta. Its area is about 2 4 0 0 square kilometers. Historically, the Nile River is regularly flooding, bringing fertile soil to both sides of the strait and becoming a rich area of ​​Egyptian agriculture. Suezidi Gorge is a depression towards north and south. The Suez Canal is a traffic road connecting Asia, Africa, and Europe. The Sinai Peninsula area is about 60,000 square kilometers. The Mediterranean coastal area is a subtropical Mediterranean climate with an average annual precipitation of 0 0 to 20 0 mm. Other regions are tropical desert climate, with an average annual precipitation of less than 30 mm. Every year in April and May, the "Pentecost" from the dry heat from the Sahara desert.

      The natural resources

      The mineral resources mainly include petroleum, iron, manganese, and phosphate. The reserves of oil proven are about 6 billion barrels, which are mainly produced in the Sinai Peninsula, Abroands, Sudel, Aseler, and Lasgurib, Gurdid Gai on the west coast of the Red Sea. The iron ore reserves are about 1 80,000 tons, which are distributed in the southern Aswan, the western desert Baihalier Oasis and the Gusle area on the Red Coast. Phosphate reserves of about one or 2 tons, distributed on the west coast of the Red Sea, Sica, Gussel, and Sibaiye along the Nile River. The Nile Delta region contains natural gas. In addition, there are titanium, mercury, chromium, lead, zinc, gold and salt.

      Economic profile

      The rural population accounts for about 60 % of the country's population. The main agricultural products are cotton, and Egypt's long fiber cotton is famous for its excellent quality. 19990 years of cotton cotton is 350,000 tons, and the output value accounts for 1/3 of the agricultural output value. Among them, the output of long fiber cotton accounts for more than 40 % of the world's long fiber cotton output. It is the country with the most cotton -producing cotton in Africa. Other agricultural products include rice, wheat, corn, onion, and sugar cane, which are almost all distributed in the Nile Valley and the Nile Delta region. Industry is mainly light industry such as textiles and food processing. In recent years, oil, steel, electric power, fertilizer, cement, machinery and other heavy industries have also developed greatly. The development of oil is particularly rapid. In 1999, the output value of petroleum oil reached 6 billion US dollars. In addition, phosphate, manganese, iron and salt, etc. In Africa, Egypt is one of the relatively developed countries. The output of industrial products such as steel, petroleum products, power generation, and textiles ranks among the forefront of Africa. The tourism industry is developed, and a large number of tourists come here every year. The main foreign trade objects are the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan, Italy, and France. The main import machinery, transportation equipment, chemical products, livestock and animal products, food, etc. Mainly export cotton, rice, textiles, crude oil and its products, onion, cottonseed oil and phosphate. There are railway 7 0 0 0 kilometers, and the total length of the highway is about 4 0 0 0 0 kilometers. The Nile River in the territory can be navigable. Coupled with the irrigation canal, the total length of the waterway can be about 30 0 0 kilometers. Mi, water depth of about 1 5 meters. After the Canal in the 19th 6th year, the range of Western European to the Indian Ocean was shortened compared to bypass Africa's hopes. 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 kilometers, which is one of the most important international canals in the world.

      In important cities

      Cairo: Capital, the apex of the Nile Delta. It is a national political, economic, and cultural center, transportation hub and important international aviation stations, and it is also the largest city in Africa. There are famous monuments such as the famous pyramids and lion body nearby. Herlewan south is Egypt's largest steel industry center. Alexander: Facing the Mediterranean, it is Egypt's largest commercial port. Founded in 3 or two years BC, it is a famous city in ancient times and medieval. There are industries such as cotton textiles, car repair, oil refining and shipbuilding. Large market for cotton trade. Egypt 8 0-9 0 % import and export materials pass through its Western Port. Sendang Port: The second largest port in the country, the north exit of the Suez Canal, is a coal and petroleum storage port. It has complete ship repair equipment. Suez: Susis canal south, is the third largest port in the country, oil processing and chemical industry center. Aswan: The southern Town of Egypt is a place for trade in Sudan, Ethiopia and other national trade.

      It

      Entical festivals: National Day July 23. Huifeng Festival in late April or early May. The loyal Nile Festival August 28th.

      Senged diplomatic relations with my country: 1 9 5 6, May 30, May 6th.

      Currency: Egyptian pound.

      time difference: 2 hours earlier than Greenen; 6 hours later than Beijing time.

      country flowers: lotus.

      country name interpretation: The source of the source is divergent. The Arabs call Egypt Mi S R, and the original meaning is "vast country."

      The monument: pyramid, miracle in the history of human architecture, Grand Grand Pyramid is known as one of the seven wonders of the world. The face of the lion is also the most representative relic of ancient Egyptian civilization. The Queen Cleopatra Palace is a beautiful palace building complex.

    5. Ancient Egypt generally refers to the Egyptian civilization in the lower reaches of the Nile in the lower reaches of the Nile during the period around 32nd century to 343 BC. Ancient Egypt is a typical hydraulic empire.
      Geographical
      Egypts are mostly yellow sandy deserts. The only place where the Nile is washed away is the green belt of Egypt. The area of ​​1/30 gathered more than 90%of the Egyptian population. Egypt is one of the ancient countries of the world. It is greatly influenced by religion. The world -famous pyramid is a kind of worship of the eternal concept of the ancient Egyptians. At present, there are more than 80 pyramids in Egypt. The largest of which is the Hushu pyramid. In addition to pyramids, the face of the lion is also a symbol of Egypt.
      The ancient Egyptian history table
      The first dynasty: 3200 to 2850 BC. From Meni to card, there are eight Pharaoons.
      It 2 dynasties: 2850 to 2686 BC. From Hotap Mois () to Caskmore, there are six Pharaohs
      2613. There are five kings from Natrict-Djeser to Houni. The era of Jiao Se was the beginning of power and victory. At this time, a magnificent and spectacular stone building represented by the ladder pyramid building complex of Shakara appeared. The designer, writer and scholar of the building group, as one of the first great men in history books. This era is a period of strong and powerful central centralized monarchy.
      The fourth dynasty: 2613 to 2494 BC. There are six or seven Pharaohs from Snefrou to Sfuskov (). Judging from the majesty of the pyramids, the rule of Sneafru, Husf, and Harph was the pinnacle of this era. In Dharine, the pyramid built by Merton and Kisa showed that the dynasty was governed by the country and economic prosperity. Fifth dynasty: 2494 to 2345 BC. From Ouser to Ounas, there are nine Pharaoons. The most famous are Sahoure and Gedcale-DJEDKARE-Isesi.
      In the fifth dynasty, the "Sun Worship Awareness" developed rapidly, engraved with the famous pyramid inscription on the Gumara's Unis Pyramid Wall. Sixth dynasty: 2345 to 2181 BC. From Teti I to Queen Nitocris, a total of seven kings include Perby I and PEPI II who live hundreds of years.
      . Although the sixth dynasty's civil and martial arts attacked for a moment, the military and business expeditions that had been organized to the southern end of Africa, but some provincial supervisors were threatened by Monfis, which was constantly inflated by the provincial governors, and triggered civil strife.
      During the first transition period (2181 ~ 1991 BC)
      The seventh dynasty: only 70 days.
      The eighth dynasty: 2181 to 2130 BC. There are eight to 27 Pharaoons, but the names are not available.
      The ninth dynasty to the tenth dynasty: from 2130 to 2040 BC. There are six Pharaoons, three named Katie.
      The eleventh dynasty: 2130 to 2040 BC in the south. There are three Pharaoons.
      Murthotipu II unified the country in 2050 BC, and since then the Eleventh Dibis monarch ruled the entire Egypt. Although this makes their hometown more and more important than the status of the city, they are still not enough to replace Memphis. The rulers of Dibis had to travel back and forth, and built a palace at the entrance to Fayum at the twelve dynasties, and a small town like Iti -Tavi. The dynasty transferred the center of power north while not giving up the bottom, showing that a strong and powerful central centralized government gradually recovered.
      The first empire of the kingdom or Dabis (1991-1786 BC)
      The end of the eleventh dynasty: 2060 to 2000 BC. The three veterans of the Monuhtp Fa, the first, unified Egypt in 2040 BC. The twelfth dynasty: 2000 to 1786 BC. Seven Pharaohs, Amenhemat or Sedristris, and the last rule was Queen Sebecinefelut ().
      It, like other countries in the world, stability always alternates with turmoil. The forces of decentralized power in various provinces and other unknown forces in other history have destroyed the Dibis regime that continued from the twelfth dynasty, and Egypt split into many vassal states.
      During the second transition period (1786 ~ 1567 BC)
      The 13th to the fourteenth dynasty: 1786-1674 BC. About forty Pharaohs, several of which named Sebehtap. Some Pharaohs are at the same time in the north, central and southern regions of Pharaoh. Starting in 1730 BC, these kings are just the princes of Pharaoh Sikleshafa.
      The fifteenth to the 16th dynasty: 1674 to 1567 BC. The 16th dynasty was known as the "Little Sek" dynasty and only existed in eastern Delta. There are five Pharaoons in the "Great Westsk" dynasty, including one Khyan and two APOPI.
      The seventh dynasty: 1674 to 1567 BC. Ten Pharaoh ruler Dibis and surrounding areas. They are Sisok's seal. The last three Pharaoh Taa (TAA) I, II, and Kamosis began to fight against Sisov in the north.
      The second kingdom of the new kingdom or Dibis (1567 ~ 1085 BC)
      Eighteenth dynasty: 1567 to 1320 BC. From Ahmosis to Hollow Heb, there were 14 monarchs, including four Titmos and four Azen Fos. The queen Axeu Su, Akhenaton and Tatan Camon belong to the dynasty.
      The 19th dynasty: 1320 to 1200 BC. Nine Latinus royal princes, including Latinus I, II, and Setti I, and II.
      The twentieth dynasty: 1200 to 1085 BC. Ten monarchs, except for the first named Sethnakht, the rest are Ramesis.
      During the third transition period (1085 ~ 715 BC)
      The 12 -year dynasty: 1085 to 945 BC. In Tanis's rule, Smendes, Puzusisi I and II. There are Herihor and Pinahm ruled in the bottom.
      The handicraft industry in ancient Egypt
      . Almost every Egyptians have a certain connection with agriculture in some respects. They are either land owners or farmers who cultivate land. Due to the rhythm of the rise and fall of the Nile, farmers then combined this rhythm with the exquisite irrigation system, so they were able to plant a variety of crops.
      The farmland in Egypt is submerged by the Nile of the Nile 3 to 4 months each year. When the flood retreated, the fertile river silt was left, and the farming began. Pull the plow twice with a cow to plow the plows twice, then the deposited dirt plows, and then sow, and then let the livestock step on the seeds into the soil. The planted crops include wheat, barley, linen, fruits, as well as vegetables such as onions, garlic, coloring vegetables, peas, lentils and vegetable beans. The irrigation of the farmland uses the water interception groove (some small ditch can lead the water channel to the Nile) and the "oranges" (shaf) -a heavy bucket that can scoop the water from the river to the field gutter.
      The life of the ancient Egyptians
      Pyling is a lifestyle for most ordinary Egyptians, and their cultivation technology was a leading position at the time. As shown by the surviving works, Egyptian craftsman is also one of the best craftsmen in the world. But the lives of the Egyptians have never been work without entertainment.
      The leisure activities of the ancient Egyptians
      Egyptian nobles like luxurious enjoyment. They used chariots, hounds and even tamed cheetahs to hunt birds, crocodiles, hippos and lions. In order to get music, they also invented fishing.
      It to celebrate birthday, marriage or religious festivals, they often hold grand and gorgeous banquets. They invited the chefs to dress up, toast and drink, and watch the performances of musicians and dancers.
      S sports activities provide entertainment methods for everyone. Boxing and fencing are widely popular. In addition, when the new French veterans ascended the throne, they generally hold racing races surrounding pyramids.
      chess and card games are also extremely popular, especially SENT, which is a game designed based on the road where the deceased leads to the underworld.
      The most distinguished God
      The Horus, the eagle head, is the most noble god, and all the Pharaohs think that he is his incarnation.
      Thirus is the son of ISIS and Osiris. His mother stroked him and asked him to avenge his father who was murdered by his brothers. In the end, Horus won the entire power of Egypt.
      Thirus was originally the god of the sky, hovering over Egypt like an eagle to protect his father King Osiris. When Horus defeated the murderer of the murder, he became the king of the entire Egypt. He was portrayed to the upper half as the white crown that symbolized the upper Egypt and the lower part as the red crown of Egypt. For this reason, the rulers of Egypt always regard themselves as Horus, and after their death, they become the embodiment of Ouseris.
      The worship center of Horus is Behdet, Heri La Koblis (), and Edfu. Holus's eyes are considered a amulet amulet amulet.

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